Frankfurt/Main, home to the European Central Bank, is, according to Barclays Bank, Europe's richest European city.




FRONT PAGE
SiteSearch
About us
Directories


Best European business cities
EIU: Most expensive cities
Mercer: Most expensive cities
UBS: Most expensive cities

Richest cities in the world (GDP)
Richest world cities (earnings)

World's top shopping streets
Real estate Europe
Largest European cities
Business stress worldwide
Secure cities
German business cities
Top European eCities
Europe's cities of culture
Large US cities hardest hit by recession
Directories


City Mayors reports news from towns and cities around the world. Worldwide | Elections | North America | Latin America | Europe | Asia | Africa | Events |


Mayors from The Americas, Europe. Asia, Australia and Africa are competing for the annual World Mayor Award. More


City Mayors ranks the world’s largest as well as richest cities and urban areas. It also ranks the cities in individual countries, and provides a list of the capital cities of some 200 sovereign countries. More


City Mayors lists and features urban events, conferences and conventions aimed at urban decision makers and those with an interst in cities worldwide. More


City Mayors reports political events, analyses the issues and depicts the main players. More


City Mayors describes and explains the structures and workings of local government in Europe, The Americas, Asia, Australia and Africa. More


City Mayors profiles city leaders from around the world and questions them about their achievements, policies and aims. More


City Mayors deals with economic and investment issues affecting towns and cities. More


City Mayors reports on how business developments impact on cities and examines cooperation between cities and the private sector. More


City Mayors describes and explains financial issues affecting local government. More


City Mayors reports urban environmental developments and examines the challenges faced by cities worldwide. More


City Mayors reports on and discusses urban development issues in developed and developing countries. More


City Mayors reports on developments in urban society and behaviour and reviews relevant research. More


City Mayors deals with urban transport issues in developed and developing countries and features the world’s greatest metro systems. More


City Mayors examines education issues and policies affecting children and adults in urban areas. More


City Mayors investigates health issues affecting urban areas with an emphasis on health in cities in developing countries. More


City Mayors examines the contributions history and culture make to urban society and environment. More


City Mayors describes the history, architecture and politics of the greatest city halls in the world. More


City Mayors invites readers to write short stories about people in cities around the world. More


City Mayors questions those who govern the world’s cities and talks to men and women who contribute to urban society and environment. More


City Mayors profiles national and international organisations representing cities as well as those dealing with urban issues. More


City Mayors reports on major national and international sporting events and their impact on cities. More


City Mayors lists cities and city organisations, profiles individual mayors and provides information on hundreds of urban events. More

European cities outperform
their English counterparts
By Nick Swift

3 February 2004: English provincial cities are lagging behind equivalent cities in mainland Europe. ?They perform less well and make a smaller contribution to national economic welfare than many provincial cities in Germany and other European countries,? says a study carried out by the European Institute of Urban Affairs at Liverpool John Moores University. Separate research by Britain’s Barclays Bank shows that, by GDP, Frankfurt is Europe’s richest city. The southern German city of Karlsruhe is placed second, followed by Paris in third place. London, the highest ranked UK city, is in 23rd position. Liverpool occupies last place in the Barclays Bank ranking.

UBS survey 2008: Most expensive cities (Intro) | World's most expensive cities (table) | Richest cities by personal earnings (table) | Richest cities by purchasing power (table |
Mercer survey: Most expensive cities
EIU survey: Most expensive cities

RICHEST CITIES BY GDP
Introduction | 150 richest cities in 2005 | 150 richest cities in 2020 | Europe's richest cities |

The Liverpool University study was commissioned by the British Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) and supported by the Core Cities Working Group, which is a partnership of the eight English provincial cities (Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, and Sheffield), the nine Regional Development Agencies, and the departments of central government primarily concerned with national economic performance, including the ODPM, the Treasury, and the Departments of Trade and Industry, Transport and Culture, Media and Sport.

Europe's 61 richest cities
GDP (€) per capita in 2001
Rank
City
€ per capita
Rank
City
€ per capita
1
Frankfurt
74,465
32
The Hague
30,110
2
Karlsruhe
70,097
33
Essen
29,760
3
Paris
67,200
34
Bristol
29,437
4
Munich
61,360
35
Lyon
28,960
5
Düsseldorf
54,053
36
Bologna
28,282
6
Stuttgart
53,570
37
Bochum
27,900
7
Brussels
51,106
38
Parma
27,491
8
Copenhagen
50,775
39
Dortmund
26,548
9
Hanover
47,223
40
Rotterdam
26,227
10
Hamburg
43,098
41
Strasbourg
26,015
11
Mannheim
41,674
42
Florence
25,693
12
Nuremburg
41,456
43
Leeds
25,619
14
Augsburg
39,360
44
Duisburg
25,259
14
Cologne
39,108
45
Eindhoven
25,226
15
Amsterdam
38,203
46
Turin
25,042
16
Münster
38,149
47
Toulouse
24,852
17
Wiesbaden
37,454
48
Rome
24,766
18
Dublin
36,591
49
Bordeaux
24,252
19
Vienna
36,572
50
Malmo
24,233
20
Stockholm
35,733
51
Gothenberg
24,065
21
Gelsenkirchen
35,688
52
Grenoble
24,026
22
Helsinki
35,322
53
Verona
23,954
23
London
35,072
54
Berlin
23,428
24
Bremen
35,022
55
Marseilles
22,809
25
Edinburgh
35,018
56
Birmingham
22,099
26
Bonn
34,112
57
Manchester
22,069
27
Antwerp
33,090
58
Newcastle
20,499
28
Milan
32,122
59
Lille
20,191
29
Glasgow
31,893
60
Barcelona
18,449
30
Utrecht
31,712
61
Liverpool
16,466
31
Saarbrücken
30,368
Source:
Barclays Bank

“The Working Group’s agenda,” reads the Liverpool University report, “is to make cities drive urban renaissance and improve economic competitiveness at national and regional level. It is concerned that English provincial cities: are not punching their weight economically in the national context; are falling behind London; lack the right mix of responsibilities and resources to improve their performance; are not as competitive, or do not make as great contribution to the national economic welfare, as comparable cities in continental Europe.”

It explores “whether – and if so how and why – English provincial cities perform less well and make a smaller contribution to national economic welfare than successful provincial cities on the Continent”. It finds its basis in literature reviews, “interviews with senior policy makers throughout Europe, a postal questionnaire”, and closer study of selected cities, including fieldwork. “The full report is available from the ODPM,” it says, and “can also be read in conjunction with the earlier Core Cities report.”

A broad assertion rapidly made is that “a process of urban renaissance is taking place in England. The eight English provincial cities examined in the report have been through their worst period and are recovering economically. In some respects in recent years the cities have been performing as well as, if not better than, their regions”. Problems that remain, the report continues, include inadequate (although improving) educational attainment, a continuing high rate of number of households receiving income benefits, and other social problems. “The question is where does that recent progress leave them in comparison to the leading European cities.”

The answer is that “the eight English provincial cities do not perform well based on economic performance. Bristol and Leeds, at 34 and 43 respectively, perform best. But several are at the bottom of the list... The majority of the eight English cities have per capita GDPs less than one-third of the richest cities in Europe”.

As to the criteria employed, the “quantitative analysis first reviews the evidence on three of the key characteristics of competitiveness – innovation, connectivity and skilled workforce. Then it provides evidence about connectivity, social cohesion and the private sector’s views of the relative attractiveness of different European cities”.

German cities do extremely well, and the report relates that finding to what its authors speculate is the crucially important trend on the Continent toward decentralisation and regionalised decision making. “Continental cities have responsibility for a wider range of functions which affect their economic competitiveness than do their English counterparts. Continental cities typically have more diverse forms of local revenue and more buoyant tax bases, which make them less fiscally dependent upon the national state and more proactive in their development strategies.

“Many European cities have powerful elected mayors who give clear leadership to economic development. Many successful cities have been deeply involved in European systems and networks, which has encouraged them to be internationalist, expansionist and entrepreneurial... The more centralised governmental, institutional and financial system must be one dimension of the underperformance of English cities. The policy implication is not a short term one. But it is clear. Letting go achieves more.’

Another striking discovery is that while “there are structured characteristics of competitiveness, which are acquired over a long period of time and not lost quickly”, so that “the cities which performed well over a decade ago and were well regarded by the private sector as places to do business a decade ago, still head the league table”, the evidence also shows that “cities can change their performance... In the longer term it is also instructive to recall the experience of the three most successful non-capital cities in Europe – Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Munich.

“Fifty years ago all had been virtually destroyed. Indeed, in those cities many believe that this destruction of older industrial structures and attitudes encouraged the view in the cities that change, innovation, reinvention was both desirable and possible.”

In the UK, the report concludes, ?the spatial architecture of economic competitiveness is complex – if not confused – and unstable... There is no magic bullet. But the evidence from Europe is that increasingly the city is regarded as too small and the region too large a platform on which to base economic competitiveness. The trend is to develop city-regional solutions, most often on an informal basis, although occasionally and successfully, on a formal basis.

View comments


How good is your Mayor? You decide


How good is
your mayor?

City Mayors provides Mayor Monitor (MM) to allow residents and non-residents to rate the performance of mayors from across the world as well as highlight their ‘best’ and ‘worst’ decisions. Mayor Monitor uses the widely understood one-to-ten rating system, where '1' signifies an extremely poor performance and '10' ‘an outstanding one. In addition to rating mayors’ performances, citizens are invited to highlight the best and worst decisions by city leaders.

Over time, Mayor Monitor will provide a valuable track record of mayors’ successes and failures as well as their popularity among residents and a wider public. The results will be published on the City Mayors website and updated monthly.

Please rate your mayor now.

The ratings will become a contributory factor of World Mayor 2010.