ABOUT CITY MAYORS

Stronger, fairer, greener cities
for prosperous urban societies

In this century, towns and cities, rather than nation states, shape the world's social, environmental, cultural, technological and economic agendas. This process will lead to increased competition for human, intellectual and material resources but will also force cities to co-operate with and learn from one another. Established in 2003, the City Mayors Foundation works with large and small communities from across the world in their strive to strengthen social equality, build a sustainable future and obtain the resources to withstand natural and man-made disasters. The City Mayors Foundation campaigns against any kind of corruption in local government. It recognises the role women play in city halls and seeks to increase the number of women mayors. IN GREATER DETAIL


NEWS FROM UKRAINIAN CITIES and MAYORS

As Russia bombards the cities
Ukrainian mayors stay defiant


Mariupol Mayor compares Russian
attacks to bombing of Hiroshima

From Mariupol (Mayor Vadym Boychenko)
The Mayor of the Ukrainian port city of Mariupol has described the Russian attacks on his city as the greatest genocide in Europe since World War II. Vadym Boychenko also compared the scale of the bombings on his city to the atomic bomb dropped by the Americans on the Japanese city of Hiroshima in 1945. “The power of the shells fired on Mariupol was greater than that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima,” he wrote on his official Telegram channel. “While Russia was threatening the world with weapons of mass destruction, its forces carried out mass destruction of civilians in Mariupol," the Mayor lamented. He spoke of a ‘crime against humanity’. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: Partnerships between German and Russian cities in time of war


MAYORS IN EUROPE

British mayorsEnglish city and
regional mayors


Local government in England
In London and several metropolitan areas, England’s cities are led by elected Mayors, while in all but 16 of the 309 local councils in England are run by a Council Leader elected by their fellow councillors. Since 2002 a number have been led by mayors elected directly by local voters. Most of the local authority elected mayors in England have responsibility for all local services, with two district council mayors responsible for only environment, planning and housing. In London and the metro area Combined Authorities, the Mayor is responsible for transport, economic development, skills and spatial planning, as well as other fields as devolved. All England’s elected mayors were elected for four-year terms by the instant run-off Supplementary Vote, though national legislation to scrap the semi-proportional system was passed in 2022. There are no elected mayors in Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: The City of London Corporation ||| Salaries of British mayors ||| British local government ||| London’s Borough leaders


POLITICS

2022 French presidential elections - How cities votedFrench 2022 presidential elections: How cities voted

France’s large cities
defeated the far-right

The 2022 presidential elections have shown just how divided a nation France is. There is a vast rural country, sparsely populated, where people live and toil in unremarkable villages and small towns and there is metropolitan France, successful and cosmopolitan, but also faced with inner-city strife. In the 2022 elections, small-town France supported Marine Le Pen the far-right challenger for the presidency while large cities voted overwhelmingly for the sitting president, Emmanuel Macron. In fact, the Macron won in all cities with more than 100,000 people. The largest city that voted for Le Pen was Béziers, population 75,000, in the south of France. Calais, population 73,000, which Le Pen represents in the French parliament also gave her its support as did Ajaccio, the capital of Corsica, population 59,000. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: French mayors who became heads of state ||| French mayors ||| Salaries of French mayors


GERMAN and RUSSIAN CITIES

German and Russian citiesPartnerships between German
and Russian cities in time of war


City partnerships must
stand for human rights

There is a consensus among German cities that partnership and twinned cities should always stand up together for human rights, democracy and the rule of law. With Russia’s attack on Ukraine, German local authorities now question whether their hitherto cordial and productive relationships with their Russian counterparts can and should be maintained. A number of German mayors have written to their Russian contacts asking them to denounce the aggression by the Russian military. Frank Metrup, the Mayor of Karlsruhe has asked his counterpart, the Mayor of Krasnador, for an unambiguous statement of condemnation. But research carried out by City Mayors among the most prominent German cities with Russian city-to-city partnerships also found a number of administrations showing reluctance to break off long-established relationships with their Russian partners. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: News from Ukrainian cities and mayors


LOCAL GOVERNMENT

City of London CorporationThe City of London: History,
feudalism and global finance

The landmarks of the area covered by the historic City of London Corporation are known to many – St Paul’s Cathedral, the Old Bailey, the ‘Gherkin’, the ‘Walkie-Talkie’ and the ‘Cheesegrater’, to name a few – but less is known about the ancient ‘Corporation’ itself. The City of London can also sometimes be confused with Greater London (the region covered by the Greater London Authority), but the two areas are entirely distinct and separate. Often simply referred to as ‘The City’, it has long been shorthand for the UK’s financial services sector.

The area of the City of London was first settled by the Romans and is governed by the City of London Corporation, which acts as the local authority for its jurisdiction. Gradually, the City of London established itself as the ‘capital’ of England, though Parliament and the Civil Service (Whitehall) are all based in the neighbouring City of Westminster. The Corporation and its practices have their origins as far back as 1111, it regards itself as “the oldest local authority in England”. IN GREATER DETAIL


RELATED PAGES: British mayors ||| Salaries of British mayors ||| British local government ||| London’s Borough leaders


LOCAL GOVERNMENT

New York City borough presidentsNew York’s Borough Presidents:
Influential beyond their powers

Bloomberg, Giuliani, Dinkins, Koch, the roll call of New York City leaders is notable by any city’s standards, as flyers to its LaGuardia airport can attest. Though weighty civic offices in their own right, the presidents of the five boroughs on the other hand enjoy less national or global prominence but possess considerable boss-like patronage and influence over local communities across the city.  NYC’s new Mayor Eric Adams served as Brooklyn’s Borough President for two terms from 2013, prior to his election as successor to the term-limited Bill De Blasio last November. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: American mayors and their salaries ||| Women mayors in the US ||| Counting Americans ||| America’s culture war ||| The guns of America ||| London’s Borough leaders


LOCAL GOVERNMENT

London borough leadersNot the Mayor but the Boroughs
provide London’s vital services

While most Londoners can name their Mayor, fewer would recognise their local council leader in the street.  Despite a half-century of existence, the municipal tier of government in the UK’s capital city London rarely makes the headlines, though since 2000 its mayors have enjoyed global prominence, particularly current Prime Minister Boris Johnson during his two terms.  Taken together, the London Boroughs and the historic City of London Corporation form the 33 municipalities of Greater London, though their roles and workings are often less well understood than the Mayor and City Hall of the regional Greater London Authority. IN GREATER DETAIL


RELATED PAGES: British mayors ||| Salaries of British mayors ||| British local government ||| New York's Borough presidents


MAYORS @ CITY MAYORS

American mayors and their salariesAmerican mayors
and their salaries

There are some 19,500 municipal governments in the United States. More than eighty per cent of American citizens now live in large cities, suburbs of cities, or towns. People’s needs – from police to sanitation, education to fire protection, housing and public transportation – are seen to, most directly, by city governments. Following the November 2021 elections, some 70 per cent of the 84 largest US cities are governed by Democrat mayors. Republican mayors rule in 20 per cent of US cities. More than two thirds of large US cities are still governed by male mayors. Salaries paid by large US cities to their mayors vary greatly. The Mayor of San Francisco (population 837,000) receives more than $350,000 per annum, while Oklahoma City (population 611,000) pays its mayor only $24,000 a year. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: New York's Borough presidents ||| Salaries of British mayors ||| Salaries of Japanese mayors ||| Counting Americans ||| Mayors @ City Mayors ||| Women mayors in the US ||| Women mayors in Europe |||


THE WOMEN MAYORS PROJECT

Women mayors in EuropeEurope lacks women mayors
There are very few female mayors in cities across Europe. Just under 17 per cent of the continent’s largest cities have women - elected or appointed - as their leaders. In Northern Europe almost one third of mayors are female, while in Southern Europe the percentage of women as leaders of local government is below nine per cent. Norway is the only country in Europe where most of the mayors of larger towns and cities are women. In Italy and Greece, no women have been elected as heads of large cities. In addition to Norway, individual countries with an above average number of female mayors include Finland, France and Switzerland. IN GREATER DETAIL


Europe's most powerful female mayors
While the total number of women mayors across Europe is deplorably low, some of the continent’s politically, economically and culturally most important cities have female leaders. Paris and Berlin are now governed by women. Women are also in charge in a number of smaller capital cities as well as in municipalities of national and international importance including Barcelona, Zurich, Copenhagen, Oslo, Lodz, Amsterdam, Strasbourg, Cologne and Sofia. Europe’s longest-serving female mayors include Martine Aubry, Lille, since 2001; Aino-Maija Luukkonen, Pori, since 2004; Corine Mauch, Zurich, since 2009 and Hanna Zdanowska, Lodz, since 2010.
IN GREATER DETAIL


RELATED PAGES: World's capital cities with women mayors ||| Women mayors in the US |||


LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Japanese local governmentLocal government in Japan
In a country more recently associated with a spate of natural disasters and decades of economic slump ahead of hosting of the deferred Olympic Games in 2021, the Japanese system of local government has bedded down well with the guarantee of local autonomy enshrined in its post-war constitution. As with other historic aspects of Japanese society, there remains an appreciable level of civic pride among many people and interest in community affairs remains strong.Japan’s system of local government, in place for over 70 years, is relatively straightforward to understand, though it does not hit the headlines outside of Japan very often and is therefore not understood by many in the local government community internationally. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: Local government in Britain ||| Japanese mayors ||| Salaries of Japanese mayors


MAYORS IN ASIA

Japanese mayors
Mayors of Japanese cities
Japan, the world’s third-largest economy by GDP and 10th largest country by population, is a unitary state, governed at national level by a Prime Minister and Cabinet largely chosen from the bi-cameral National Diet. The two-tier local government system in Japan is composed of 47 prefectural governments (roughly akin to a county), each headed by a directly-elected Governor (elected on a four-year term) and 1,719 municipalities, each headed by a directly-elected Mayor (elected likewise). IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: Salaries of Japanese mayors ||| British mayors salaries ||| Japanese local government


MAYORS IN ASIA

Japanese mayors receive
upper management salaries

Mayors in Japan are typically among the highest earners in their municipal government with a salary that is comparable to that of upper-middle management in a large firm. The salary amount is collectively decided by each city assembly, which also has the power to raise or lower the amount. Topping the table of highest-earning mayors once again is the city of Yokohama, whose mayor Takeharu Yamanaka receives an annual salary of almost ¥19.2 million (US$167,000), while at the other end of the scale Takashi Kawamura of Nagoya receives just under a third of this figure with an annual pay packet of ¥6 million, despite leading one of Japan’s largest city administrations. IN GREATER DETAIL


RELATED PAGES: Japanese local government ||| Mayors of largest Japanese cities ||| Salaries of American mayors ||| Salaries of British mayors


LOCAL GOVERNMENT

UK local governmentLocal government in the UK
History and many post-war reforms
shape local government in the UK

There is no single pattern of local government in the United Kingdom. Instead arrangements vary in the four ‘home nations’ of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. In Scotland, Wales and urban England, with the exception of London, single-tier unitary authorities provide all local services, whereas non-metropolitan England is served by a two-tier system split between district and county councils. Local government in the United Kingdom is a settled feature of the constitutional architecture and has long acted as an agency of the state in order to fulfil many of the functions required by central government to ameliorate social problems throughout the years. The need for a comprehensive system of local authorities arose alongside the expansion in the population of urban centres around the time of the Industrial Revolution. IN GREATER DETAIL


RELATED PAGES: Elected mayors in Britain ||| London Boroughs and their Leaders ||| German local government ||| Irish local government ||| US local government ||| Japanese local government


MAYORS IN EUROPE

Salaries of British mayorsSalaries & allowances
of British mayors

In the UK local politics has long been seen as a community service rather than a career and this is reflected in the pay for elected mayors. By contrast, senior officials employed in city administrations are often paid more than double the elected mayor’s annual allowance. For instance, the Metro Mayor of the Tees Valley receives £65,000 per year, yet the authority’s chief executive takes home a more impressive £170,000, a gap of over £100,000. While mayoral and councillors’ remuneration is recommended by independent external advisers, councils are free to set their own political pay rates, though many reduce or freeze against the recommended level, mindful of local voters’ reactions. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: Britain's elected mayors ||| London Boroughs and their Leaders ||| British local government ||| Salaries of American mayors ||| Salaries of French mayors ||| Salaries of German mayors ||| Salaries of Japanese mayors


THE WOMEN MAYORS PROJECT

American women mayorsWomen mayors in America
Boston elects female mayor

Some of America’s largest cities, including Chicago, San Francisco, Washington DC and Boston, are governed by women mayors. Most are members of the Democratic Party. Of the 30 largest cities with women as their leaders, only four have Republican mayors. Some 21 cities are led by Democrats, while five mayors are independents. Carolyn Goodman, Mayor of Las Vegas, who assumed office in 2011, is the longest-serving mayor among the top 30. Five mayors joined the list in 2021. In Boston, Michelle Wu replaced the city’s first female mayor, Kim Janey, on 16 November 2021. Mayor-elect Janey won the run-off election against another female candidate, Essaibi George. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: New York's Borough presidents ||| Capital cities with women mayors ||| Women mayors in Europe ||| Europe's most powerful female mayors ||| World Mayor 2018 ||| Mayor of Freetown ||| Mayor of Raqqa



LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Local government in Ireland
Irish with a British accent
Local government in the Republic of Ireland predates its national political structures, with the constitutional arrangements laid down under British rule in the late nineteenth century largely remaining in place. Ireland’s local government arrangements consisted until recently of 29 county and county borough councils with a set of smaller town and in some cases borough councils at the sub-tier. A big bang reorganisation in 2014 saw this number streamlined and flattened into 31 all-purpose local authorities through a series of mergers, in response to Ireland’s recent economic and political crisis. IN GREATER DETAIL


RELATED PAGES: German local government ||| UK local government ||| US local government ||| Japanese local government


LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Local government
Local government:
Powers and Politics

A plethora of city leadership models exist across Europe, depending on history and political culture, though the challenges facing urban areas are mostly identical. While in France, Spain, Greece and Portugal the mayor is head of the party list on the council, in Luxembourg and the Netherlands mayors are appointed by the central government for a six-year term. In Germany, mayors are directly elected, as are all metro mayors in England. In many European countries mayors enjoy considerable powers and their responsibilities cover a wide array of day-to-day activities as well as longterm projects such as health, education, policing, environment and culture. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: Mayors and Politics ||| Women mayors


THE WOMEN MAYORS PROJECT

A quarter of capital cities
are led by women mayors

While it is estimated that internationally less than 15 per cent of mayors are women – some research studies put the figure even lower – a quarter of the world’s capital cities are led by women. In Europe, capitals like Paris, Amsterdam, Berlin, Oslo and Stockholm have female mayors, while in Africa, Dakar, Freetown, Tunis, Addis Ababa, Nairobi and Rabat are led by women. In Latin America, some of the largest capital cities, such as Mexico City, Caracas, Bogota and Montevideo have women mayors. Asian capitals with women leaders include Hong Kong, Singapore and Tokyo.

In 2021, women assumed the post of mayors in Accra, Addis Ababa, Berlin, Dublin, Luanda, Nairobi, Rabat, Santiago de Chile, Sarajevo, and Skopje. (Virginia Raggi, Mayor of Rome from 2016 to 2021, failed to be re-elected in October.) The list of longest-serving female leaders includes the mayors of Sydney (since 2004), Zurich (since 2009), Sofia (since 2011) and Paris (since 2014). IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: Women mayors in Europe ||| Europe's most powerful female mayors ||| Women mayors in the US



SOCIETY

After a turbulent process, the 2020
US Census still faces challenges

The 2020 US Census was marked by challenges related to Covid-19, especially the suspension for months of traditional door-to-door canvassing. The 2020 Census was also marked by the Trump Administration’s efforts to politicize the Census process and the data generated. The United States federal government conducts a census of the nation’s population at the beginning of every decade. The results of a census help determine the amount of federal funds disbursed to state and local governments over ten years, and thus are critical to cities. The US Conference of Mayors, representing more than 1,400 cities, created a task force specifically to monitor the 2020 census process. Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms of Atlanta, Georgia, and Mayor Ron Nirenberg of San Antonio, Texas, are currently the task force’s chair and co-chair, respectively. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: Critical Race Theory ||| Fighting racism in America ||| The guns of America ||| Salaries of American mayors ||| New York's Borough presidents


MAYORS IN EUROPE

Polish mayorsPolish local government
and mayors of largest cities

Since 1999, Poland has been divided into provinces, counties and districts. The 19 provinces (voivodeships) represent the highest-level of local government. They are mostly named after historical or geographical regions. Provincial powers are shared between a governor, a regional parliament and a marshal. While the mayors (presidents) of Poland’s largest and third-largest cities are women, overall, only 11 of the country’s 107 municipalities have female leaders. Two of them are in their fourth term of office. Gdansk Mayor Aleksndra Dulkiewicz was elected in March 2019, after the murder of her predecessor Pawel Adamowics. IN GREATER DETAIL

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WORLD MAYOR 2021

World Mayor 2021The winners of the 2021
World Mayor Prize and Awards

The 2021 World Mayor Project was launched at the start of the Covid crisis and conducted during the various waves of the pandemic. Villages, towns and cities in all parts of the world fell victim to Covid. The pandemic has made it clear that cities need to become better prepared for future man-made or natural disasters. In recognition, the 2021 World Mayor Project was dedicated to Stronger | Fairer | Greener cities. At a time, when human and civil rights in many parts of the world are questioned and, worse, violated, World Mayor 2021 has commended mayors who uphold these values. The list of mayors honoured by World Mayor in 2021, includes city leaders from large metropolises, medium-sized cities and small communities. Their conduct, goals and achievements have been endorsed by their fellow citizens. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: American women mayors ||| Mayor of Freetown ||| Mayor of Raqqa



MAYORS IN EUROPE

Italian local government
and mayors of largest cities

Mayors play a central role in Italian national life and are a settled feature of the political system. The more than 8,000 communes are each headed by a mayor (sindaco) and elected council (consiglio comunale) of between 15 and 80 members. Since the October 2021 mayoral elections, Italy’s four largest cities – Rome, Milan, Turin and Naples – are led by centre-left mayors. The social-democrat Democratic Party (PD) captured Rome and Turin from the populist 5-Star-Movement. Milan’s PD Mayor Giuseppe Sala was re-elected in the first round of voting with 57 per cent of the vote, while Naples elected an independent centre-left candidate. The new Mayor of Bologna is also a member of the Democratic Party. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: British mayors ||| Spanish mayors ||| Turkish mayors ||| Belgian mayors



SOCIETY

US mayors caught up
in nation’s culture war

US mayors are once again being forced to take sides in America’s culture wars. A new front opened with the police killing of George Floyd and the intense backlash on city streets. Many American cities were already advancing equity initiatives when Floyd was killed, but his murder prompted renewed efforts by mayors to achieve racial justice by rethinking policing, and, provocatively for some, applying critical race theory to teaching, training, and discussions on equity. Critical race theory looks at power relationships in the United States through the lens of race. It explores how racism and inequity can become a part of everyday American life by examining the historical record and current laws and social practices. The goal is to promote a more equitable society through dialogue, understanding, and the implementation of more equitable and inclusive processes. While critical race theory has been taught for 40 years in the United States, it has recently come under political attack, with US mayors often drawn into the controversy. IN GREATER DETAIL

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SOCIETY

American gun laws
While Congress dithers, US
mayors push for gun control

Guns and gun violence are seemingly normal in American culture. More than 40,000 Americans die each year from gun violence. The average number of gun deaths has risen over the past 20 years, as federal regulations on gun ownership have eased and American buy and use more guns. The pandemic, recent police shootings of unarmed African-Americans, and a flurry of mass shootings have highlighted the racial, social, and economic inequalities in America. There’s a sense that American don’t want to go back to normal about a lot of things, including gun violence. Mayors in the United States are using their rhetoric and concrete proposals to try to reframe the debate about gun violence while dealing with immediate policing issues related to the use of firearms and implementing long-term efforts to reduce crime. IN GREATER DETAIL

RELATED PAGES: Trust and race in America ||| Blacks were deemed unworthy of respect ||| New York's Borough presidents


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RESEARCH
Women mayors in Europe
Europe's most powerful female mayors
City Equity Offices in America
African American Mayors
American mayors and their salaries
Salaries of Japanese mayors
European mayors: Power and Politics
Capital cities and their mayors
Code of Ethics for mayors